Urgenda Paris Agreement

At the 2009 climate change conference in Copenhagen (COP-15), it was not possible to reach agreement on a successor or an extension of the Kyoto Protocol. 10. The EU and its 27 Member States wanted to reaffirm their commitment to a negotiation process aimed at achieving the strategic goal of limiting the increase in global average temperature to less than 2oC above pre-industrial levels. To achieve this goal, global greenhouse gas emissions must peak by 2020 at the latest, decrease by at least 50% by 2050 from 1990 levels, and continue to decline thereafter. To this end, and in line with the conclusions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, developed countries, as a group, are expected to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 25 to 40 per cent by 2020 and by 80-95% by 2050, as an expert group, while developing countries, as a group, should, as a group, reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 25-30% by 2020 through international and complementary national and complementary efforts. The EU and its 27 Member States are firmly committed to continuing negotiations with the other parties with a view to concluding a legally binding international agreement for the period from 1 January 2013 as soon as possible. Some of the following sections are borrowed from Jaap Spiers` contribution to the Clyde-Co (London) site resilience.clydeco.com/articles/the-urgenda-judgment-and-its-potential-implications. In itself, it is true that the 25-40% target was included in AR4 as a group for Schedule I countries. However, as the considerations of 5.7.3 and 5.7.4 show, both the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement are based on individual state responsibility.

Therefore, the objective of the AR4 also applies, in principle, to the member states of the Annex I group of countries. As point 7.4.1 shows, the state itself interpreted this objective in the same way. Both the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement provide for states to cooperate and reach an agreement allowing them to collectively reduce their emissions and do more than the other (Article 4, paragraph 2, point a), last sentence, UNFCCC and Article 4, paragraph 16, and 4, paragraph 17, of the Paris Agreement).